Thursday 5 October 2017

Use of Private Constructor in OOPS

If we set access specifier of a constructor to private, then that constructor can only be accessed inside the class. A private constructor is mainly used when you want to prevent the class instance from being created outside the class. 

This is mainly in the case of singleton class. Singleton classes are employed extensively in concepts like Networking and Database Connectivity. Using private constructor we can ensure that no more than one object can be created at a time. 

Example of Private Constructor in a Singleton Class

public class SingletonClass
    public static SingletonClass singletonClass;

    private SingletonClass() 

    public static SingletonClass getInstance() 
        if(singletonClass == null) 
            singletonClass = new SingletonClass();
        return singletonClass;

A class with private constructor cannot be inherited.

If we don’t want a class to be inherited, then we make the class constructor private. So, if we try to derive another class from this class then compiler will flash an error. Why compiler will flash an error? 

We know the order of execution of constructor in inheritance that when we create an object of a derived class then first constructor of the base call will be called and then constructor of derived class. Since base class constructor is private, hence, derived class will fail to access base class constructor.

We can also use sealed class to stop a class to be inherited. Sealed class provide more flexible and readable way to stop inheritance.

Diamond Problem in Multiple Inheritance in OOPS

The diamond problem occurs when two super classes of a class have a common base class. 

Suppose there are four classes A, B, C and D. Class B and C inherit class A. Now class B and C contains one copy of all the functions and data members of class A. Class D is derived from class B and C. Now class D contains two copies of all the functions and data members of class A. One copy comes from class B and another copy comes from class C.

Let’s say class A has a function with name display(). So class D have two display() functions as I have explained above. If we call display() function using class D object then ambiguity occurs because compiler gets confused that whether it should call display() that came from class B or from class C. If you will compile above program then it will show error.

This kind of problem is called diamond problem as a diamond structure is formed (see the image).

That is why major programming languages like C#, Java and Delphi don't have multiple inheritance because it can lead to diamond problem and rather than providing some complex way to solve it, there are better ways through which we can achieve the same result as multiple inheritance. We can use interfaces to resolve this problem.

C++ supports multiple inheritance.

Notice that the above problem with multiple class inheritance can also come with only three classes where all of them has at least one common method.

Because of this problem we can not extend two classes for implementing multiple inheritance and to resolve this problem of multiple inheritance in object oriented programming we use interfaces for implementing the functionality of multiple inheritance. 

As we know we do not define a function but only declare that function in an interface. So if we use interfaces we can extend one class and one or more interfaces or we can implement more than one interfaces at a time to use the functionality of multiple inheritance and we can escape from diamond problem.

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I am currently messing up with neural networks in deep learning. I am learning Python, TensorFlow and Keras.

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