## Friday 22 February 2019

### Implement Decision Tree Algorithm in Python using Scikit Learn Library for Regression Problem

Lets implement Decision Tree algorithm in Python using Scikit Learn library. In my last article, we had solved a classification problem using Decision Tree. This time, we will solve a regression problem (predicting the petrol consumption in US) using Decision Tree.

We need to import DecisionTreeRegressor from sklearn library instead of DecisionTreeClassifier to implement Decision Tree to solve regression problem.

To measure the performance of a regression problem, we need to import mean_absolute_error and mean_squared_error metrics instead of confusion_matrix, accuracy_score and classification_report which we used in classification problem.

Step 1: Import the required Python libraries like pandas, numpy and sklearn

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeRegressor
from sklearn.metrics import mean_absolute_error, mean_squared_error

Step 2: Load and examine the dataset

names = ['Index', 'One', 'Petrol tax (cents per gallon)', 'Average income (dollars)',
'Paved Highways (miles)', 'Proportion of population with driver licenses',
'Consumption of petrol (millions of gallons)']

dataset.shape
dataset.describe()

Please note that "describe()" is used to display the statistical values of the data like mean and standard deviation.

Step 3: Mention X and Y axis

X = dataset.drop('Index', axis=1).drop('One', axis=1).drop('Consumption of petrol (millions of gallons)', axis=1)

Please note that first two columns "Index" and "One" are of no use for making any prediction. So dropped these two features. Also dropped the label which is the last column.

X contains the list of attributes
Y contains the list of labels

y = dataset['Consumption of petrol (millions of gallons)']

Step 4: Split the dataset into training and testing dataset

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size = 0.20, random_state=0)

Step 5: Create and fit the model

model = DecisionTreeRegressor()
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

Step 6: Predict from the model

y_pred = model.predict(X_test)

The y_pred is a numpy array that contains all the predicted values for the input values in the X_test.

Lets see the difference between the actual and predicted values.

df=pd.DataFrame({'Actual':y_test, 'Predicted':y_pred})
df

Step 7: Check the accuracy

meanAbsoluteError = mean_absolute_error(y_test, y_pred)
meanSquaredError = mean_squared_error(y_test, y_pred)
rootMeanSquaredError = np.sqrt(meanSquaredError)
print('Mean Absolute Error:', meanAbsoluteError)
print('Mean Squared Error:', meanSquaredError)
print('Root Mean Squared Error:', rootMeanSquaredError)